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The Pocket Negotiator Glossary is an alphabetical list of technical terms used in the Pocket Negotiator project. This is a living document and will be updated as new terms are introduced in the Pocket Negotiator project.


Affect Two different meanings. Affect either refers to the commonplace term for "anything having to do with emotion, mood, etc.", or, refers to undifferentiate levels of valence and arousal (positive-negative and active-passive part of an emotion, mood).
Affective attitude Affective attitude refers to how one generally feels about something or someone, not specifically because of that thing or person. For example, I like popular science books, and I feel enthusiastic about theme parks.
Agreement Outcome of a negotiation that is agreed upon by all negotiating parties at the end of a negotiation.
Alternative A generic name for the possible choices that a negotiator may choose from. There may be alternative issues, options and packages (THERE IS A SLIGHT PROBLEM WITH THE CONSSTENCY OF ISSUE, PACKAGE, ALTERNATIVE and OPTION: Joost).
Attribute a synonym for Issue

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Closed negotiation

Negotiation where the opponent's preferences are not known.


Last of four negotiation phases.

Compromise An option that is usually suboptimal and positioned in between options that are better for the different negotiation partners.
Core concerns A term coined in "Beyond Reason: Using Emotions as You Negotiate" by Roger Fisher. The five core concerns that stimulate many emotions during negotiations are appreciation, affiliation, autonomy, status, and role. By dealing effectively with these concerns, you can stimulate positive emotions. They can be used to understand the emotional experience of each party as well as a lever to stimulate positive emotions in parties.

Graphical qualitative conditional preference modelling approach by Boutilier et al.



Synonym for agreement.


Acronym for Domain, User, Opponent.

Dyadic (negotiation) A negotiation with two parties involved. Synonym for bilateral negotiation.


Emotion In general, emotion is related to facial expression, feeling, cognitive processing, physiological change and action readiness. Furthermore, emotion refers to a short but intense episode that, in addition to the previously mentioned aspects such as facial expressions, is characterized by “attributed affect to a causal factor”. An emotion is a noticeable if not powerful experience. For example, I feel (and notice I am) happy about seeing an old friend.

Science Fair season will be here ralipdy and it is time to be looking for some good kids science project ideas. You might have an easy time with it or it could turn into a bother. The less hassle the better it


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A party’s basic needs, wants, and motivations that are potentially at stake in a negotiation. The measure of success in a negotiation is how well your interests are met. (David A. Lax and James K. Sebenius, 3-D Negotiation [Harvard Business School Press, 2006], 69)


A topic of discussion that is of particular interest in a negotiation. Each issue has a range of alternatives or options, one of which must ultimately be agreed upon by the negotiators in order to achieve a compromise.


Joint exploration

Second of four negotiation phases.



Lexicographic ordering

A qualitative multi-attribute preference ordering.

is quickly coinmg, the yearly science fair and so parents everywhere will be on the hunt for kids science project ideas. You might have an easy time with it or it could turn into a trouble. If you can avoid having this


Nash point
Negotiation goal
Negotiation phase

There are four negotiation phases: preparation, joint exploration, bidding, and closure.



Synonym for bid.

Open negotiation

Negotiation where the opponent's preferences are known.


A possible instantiation of issues in the outcome space. Note: we agreed to use the term 'possible outcome' for this meaning.


A possible instantiation of issues in the outcome space. Also called possible outcome when it has to be made clear that not just the final outcome/agreement/deal is meant.

Outcome space


Pareto optimality

An outcome is Pareto optimal if there is no other outcome that is better for one party and not worse for the other party.

Pareto optimal frontier

All Pareto optimal outcomes form a frontier in the outcome space.

Possible outcome

See outcome.


A preference is a measure of liking/satisfaction/desirability/utility/usefulness or some related notion. Quantitative preferences are usually expressed by means of a numerical utility value, qualitative preferences by means of an ordering over the alternatives.


First of four negotiation phases. During preparation, a negotiator should gather information about the domain, his own preferences, and the opponent.


A set of rules that have to be followed, usually applied to the bidding phase. GENIUS uses a two-party alternating offers protocol.



I've been a regular sheppor at Whole Foods Market for years and I've been waiting for the company to put out a cookbook with some of their own great recipes, like Ed's Tantalizing Tofu, for the home cook. So when this book finally appeared, I was one of the first in line for it. Unfortunately, it's not what I'd hoped for.I have no complaints about the ingredients list, that's why I shop at WFM beautiful fresh, organic produce, all varieties of grain and pasta products, and a wide assortment of gourmet and International foods not found in other stores. For many of my favorite cookbooks [like Nina Simonds' Asian Noodles] Whole Foods Market provides one-stop shopping.The problem I have with the book is that of the half-dozen or so recipes I tried, I had to make repairs midway through the making, or the flavors or ingredients didn't come together as I expected, or the end product just plain didn't taste good. I was left with beautiful food made into lousy meals.If you're looking for great-tasting recipes tailor-made for WFM sheppors, I'm afraid you'll have to wait a little while longer. This one should be sent back to the test kitchen.



A trade-off is an exchange process in which a decision maker gives up partly on some issues so as to gain on other issues.


Utility function Cardinal utility function (can be used for situations where outcomes are probabilistic).


Value function Ordinal utility function (can be used for situations where no uncertainty regarding outcomes is present).





Also see: